Motivation is derived from the word ‘motive”. The word ‘motive’ as a verb this word means moving into action. Therefore, motives are forces which induce people to act in a way, so as to ensure the fulfillment of a particular human need at a time. Behind every human action there is a motive. Therefore, management must provide motives to people to make them work for the organization.
Definition or Meaning
“It is the willingness to exert high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditional by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual needs”.___S.P.Robbins
“It is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward.”__Flippo.
Characteristics of Motivation
- It is a personal and internal feeling: It is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual.
- It is need based: If there are no needs of an individual, the process of motivation fails. It is a behavioural concept that directs human behaviour towards certain goals.
- Motivation is a continuous process: As we have studied in economics, human wants are unlimited. It is said that, ‘Even god cannot satisfy all human wants with the satisfaction of one wants, other want preferedly present wants are satisfied. Further, all the wants cannot be satisfied at the same time wants are to be satisfied one after another continues hence, motivation is also a continuous and an unexisting process.
- It may be positive or negative: A positive motivation promotes incentives to people while a negative motivation threatens the enforcement of disincentives.
- It is a planned process: People differ in their approach, to respond to the process of motivation; as no two individuals could be motivated in an exactly similar manner. Accordingly, motivation is a psychological concept and a complex process.
Importance of Motivation
1. High Efficiency: It is a system to releases the immense untapped reservoirs of physical and mental capabilities. A number of studies have shown that motivation plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. “Poorly motivated people can nullify the soundest organisation.” said by Allen.
2. Facilitates Change: It helps to overcome resistance to change and negative attitude on the part of employees like restriction of output. Satisfied workers take interest in new organisational goals and are more receptive to changes that management wants to introduce in order to improve efficiency of operations.
3. Human Relations: It creates job satisfaction which results in cordial relations between employer and employees. Industrial disputes, labour absenteeism and turnover are reduced with consequent benefits. It helps to solve the central problem of management, i.e., effective use of human resources.