Angiosperms are plants producing flowers. They are also commonly called as the flowering plants. They belong to the Kingdom Plantae, Subkingdom Embryophyta. they about 300,000 species of flowering plants, the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom Plantae. Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all the known green plants now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The ovary itself is usually enclosed in a flower, that part of the angiospermous plant that contains the male or female reproductive organs or both.
Characteristics of Angiosperms
The important characteristics of angiosperms are mentioned below:
- They have flowers at some stage in their life. The flowers serve as the reproductive organs for the plant, providing them a means of exchanging genetic information.
- Angiosperms have small pollen grains that spread genetic information from flower to flower. These grains are much smaller than the gametophytes, or reproductive cells, used by non-flowering plants. This small size allows the process of fertilization to occur quicker in the flowers of angiosperms and makes them more efficient at reproducing.
- They have stamens. Stamens are the reproductive structures found in flowers that produce the pollen grains that carry the male genetic information.
- The process of fertilization is quicker in angiosperms. The seeds are also produced quickly due to the smaller female reproductive parts.
- All angiosperms are comprised of stamens which are the reproductive structures of the flowers. They produce the pollen grains that carry the hereditary information.
- The carpels enclose developing seeds that may turn into a fruit.
- The production of the endosperm is one of the greatest advantages of angiosperms. The endosperm is formed after fertilization and is a source of food for the developing seed and seedling.
Classification of Angiosperms
The classification of angiosperm is explained below:
- Monocotyledons: They have a single cotyledon. The leaves are simples and the veins are parallel. This group contains adventitious roots. Each floral whorl has three members. It has closed vascular bundles and large in number. Ex: Banana, sugarcane, lilies, etc.
- Dicotyledons: The seeds of these plants have two cotyledons. They contain tap roots, instead of adventitious roots. The leaves depict a reticulate venation. The flowers are tetramerous or pentamerous and the vascular bundles are organized in rings. Ex: Grapes, sunflowers, tomatoes, etc.