Cancer: Types, Symptoms and Treatment

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Cancer is a deadly disease involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. In the world and it affects over 11 lakh people every year in India alone. Worldwide, more than 10 million people.

Types of Cancer

  • Carcinoma: It begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs “skin, lung, colon, pancreatic, ovarian cancers,” epithelial, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, melanomas, papillomas, and adenomas
  • Sarcoma: That begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue — “bone, soft tissue cancers,” osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, liposarcoma, angiosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma
  • Leukemia: It starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood — “leukemia,” lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and CLL), myelogenous leukemias (AML and CML), T-cell leukemia, and hairy-cell leukemia
  • Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system — “lymphoma,” T-cell lymphomas, B-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative lymphomas.

Cancer

Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
  • Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent cough or trouble breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Hoarseness
  • Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
  • Unexplained muscle or joint pain
  • Unexplained fevers or night sweats
  • Unexplained bleeding

Treatment

  • Surgery: Surgically removes as much of cancer as possible.
  • Chemotherapy: Uses medications that are toxic to cells to kill rapidly dividing cancer cells.
  • Radiation Therapy: Uses powerful, focused beams of radiation inside or outside (external beam radiation) your body to kill cancer cells.
  • Stem Cell Transplant: Repairs diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can have a variety of functions. These transplants allow doctors to use higher doses of chemotherapy to treat cancer.
  • Immunotherapy: Uses antibodies to help your body’s immune system recognize cancer so it can fight it off.
  • Hormone Therapy: Removes or blocks hormones that fuel certain cancers to stop cancer cells from growing.
  • Targeted Drug Therapy: Uses drugs to interfere with certain molecules that help cancer cells grow and survive.

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