prokaryotic cell is single-celled microorganisms known to be the earliest on earth. Prokaryotes include Bacteria and Archaea. The photosynthetic prokaryotes include cyanobacteria that perform photosynthesis. thus it consists of a single membrane and therefore, all the reactions occur within the cytoplasm. They can be free-living or can be found within the gut of other organisms.
Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cell
- They lack a nuclear membrane.
- Absent of Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, chloroplast, and lysosomes.
- Genetic material is present on a single chromosome.
- The cell wall is made up of carbohydrates and amino acids.
- The plasma membrane acts as the mitochondrial membrane carrying respiratory enzymes.
- It divides asexually by binary fission. The sexual mode of reproduction involves recombination.
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
The structure of the Prokaryotic Cell as follows:
- Capsule: It is an outer protective covering found in the bacterial cells, in addition to the cell wall. It helps in moisture retention, protects the cell when engulfed, and helps in the attachment of cells to nutrients and surfaces.
- Cell Wall: It is the outermost layer of the cell that gives shape to the cell.
- Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is mainly composed of enzymes, salts, cell organelles, and is a gel-like component.
- Cell Membrane: This layer surrounds the cytoplasm and regulates the entry and exit of substances in the cells.
- Plasmids: Plasmids are non-chromosomal DNA structures. These are not involved in reproduction.
- Nucleoid Region: It is the region in the cytoplasm where the genetic material is present.
- Pili: These are hair-like outgrowths that attach to the surface of other bacterial cells.
- Flagella: These are long structures in the form of a whip, that help in the locomotion of a cell.
- Ribosomes: These are involved in protein synthesis.
Prokaryotic Cells Diagram
Part of Prokaryotic Cells
- Plasma Membrane: It is an outer protective covering of phospholipid molecules that separates the cell from the surrounding environment.
- Cytoplasm: It is a jelly-like substance present inside the cell. All the cell organelles are suspended in it.
- DNA: It is the genetic material of the cell. All the prokaryotes possess a circular DNA. It directs what proteins the cell creates. It also regulates the actions of the cell.
- Ribosomes: Protein synthesis occurs here.
Examples of Prokaryotic Cells
Bacterial Cells and Archaeal Cells are examples.