Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, It is the lightest element in the periodic table. It’s colourless, Odourless, Tasteless, Flammable gaseous substance that is the simplest member of the family of chemical elements. And it is non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2.
The hydrogen atom has a nucleus consisting of a proton bearing one unit of positive electrical charge; an electron, bearing one unit of negative electrical charge, is also associated with this nucleus. Under ordinary conditions, hydrogen gas is a loose aggregation of hydrogen molecules, each consisting of a pair of atoms, a diatomic molecule, H2. The earliest known important chemical property of H is that it burns with oxygen to form water, H2O; indeed, the name hydrogen is derived from Greek words meaning maker of water.
Atomic Number : 1
Atomic Weight : 1.00794
Melting Point : 13.81 K (-259.34°C or -434.81°F)
Boiling Point : 20.28 K (-252.87°C or -423.17°F)
Density : 0.00008988 grams/cubic cm
Most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds. It plays a particularly important role in acid–base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, It can take the form of a negative charge when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged species denoted by the symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, Study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.
Industrial production is mainly from steam reforming natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive methods such as the electrolysis of water. Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. It is problematic in metallurgy because it can embrittle many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.