Soil management is a application of operations, practices, and treatments to protect soil and enhance its performance. It includes soil conservation, soil amendment, and optimal soil health. In agriculture, some amount of soil management is needed both in nonorganic and organic types to prevent agricultural land from becoming poorly productive over decades. Organic farming in particular emphasizes optimal soil management because it uses soil health as the exclusive or nearly exclusive source of its fertilization and pest control.
Soil management is a key component to the success of site-specific cropping systems management. It starts with a farmer’s capacity to vary tillage and inputs according to soil conditions and needs. This factor is important in seedbed preparation, weed management, sustainability, and has the potential to lower or optimize production costs within an individual field.
Management of soil protects and enhances soil performance. It also reduces input costs, prevents pollution, and improves yields and crop quality. Before planting, the soil should be in the best physical condition for the crop, to encourage rapid and successful root growth. Every farm and crop has different soil requirements, but there are a few common practices that could encourage healthy soil biology.
Soil Management Methods
- Soil Analysis In order to follow good practices for sustainable soil management, it’s essential that farmers regularly perform soil analysis. By testing their soil, farmers can see the exact amount of soil nutrients, humus content, and pH value. According to the content of nutrients in the soil and the crop requirements, it’s easy to determine the necessary amount of fertilizer, to achieve higher yields and fruit quality.
- Use Organic Fertilization, it matter consists of all living soil organisms and the previous living organisms in their various degrees of decomposition. It will usefull to stabilise moisture and enhance crop elding.
- Proper Drainage and Irrigation is important to ensure good soil drainage as well as optimum humidity for young plants. Soils with less drainage may accumulate higher amounts of water than is needed and thus negatively affect seeds or young plants. In fields where the water is insufficient, irrigation is required. Immediately after planting and during the first stages, irrigation is the crucial farm practice. By following these practices, farmers can adjust the water needs according to the crop requirements.
- Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequenced of growing seasons. Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row gradually depletes the soil of certain nutrients and selects for a highly competitive pest and weed community. crop rotations can improve soil structure and organic matter, which reduces erosion and increases farm system resilience.