Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis
According to Jones and Decothis___”Job analysis is the process of getting information about jobs: specially, what the worker does; how he gets it done; why he does it; skill, education and training required; relationship to other jobs, physical demands; environmental conditions”.
According Edwin B. Flippo___ “job analysis as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications”.
Two Major Aspects of Job Analysis
1. Job Description
2. Job Specification
1. Job Description: Job description is prepared on the basis of data collected through job analysis. Job description is a functional description of the contents what the job entails. It is a narration of the contents of a job. It is a description of the activities and duties to be performed in a job, the relationship of the job with other jobs, the equipment and tools involved, the nature of supervision, working conditions and hazards of the job and so on.
All major categories of jobs need to be spelled out in clear and comprehensive manner to determine the qualifications and skills required to perform a job. Thus, job description differentiates one job from the other. In sum, job description is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done.
Purposes of Job Description
- Grading and classification of jobs
- Placement and Orientation of new employees
- Promotions and transfers
- Outlining for career path
- Developing work standards
- Counselling of employees
- Delimitation of authority
2. Job Specification: job specification focuses on the person i.e, the job holder. Job specification is a statement of the minimum levels of qualifications, skills, physical and other abilities, experience, judgment and attributes required for performing job effectively. In other words, it is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job. It sets forth the knowledge, skills and abilities required to do the job effectively.
Purpose of Job Specification
- Personnel planning
- Performance appraisal
- Training and development
- Job evaluation and compensation
- Health and safety
- Employee discipline
- Work scheduling