What is Biosphere?

Biosphere reserves are the protected areas meant for the conservation of plants and animals. It also restores the traditional life of the tribals living in that vicinity. They conserve the biodiversity of that area. There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India established by the government that protects large areas of natural habitats. These areas are provided with buffer zones that are open for some economic uses. Not only the flora and fauna but also the humans inhabiting these areas are protected.

Functions of a Biosphere Reserve

Each biosphere reserve is supposed to fulfill three harmonizing functions:

  1. Conservation function: to conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes
  2. Development function: to promote sustainable human and economic development.
  3. Logistic support function: to provide support for research and analyzing the issues of conservation and sustainable development.

Importance of Biosphere Reserves

The importance of biosphere reserves is mentioned below:

  • Conservation: Biosphere reserves conserve the species, ecosystems, genetic diversities, and landscapes without affecting the inhabitants.
  • Development: It ensures sustainable developments including economic, cultural, social, and economic developments.
  • Restoration: The biosphere reserves restore any damage caused to the ecosystems and habitats.
  • Education and Research: These areas provide a lot of information on how to restore, conserve, and develop the ecosystem. The researches provide ways to recreate landscapes that have been affected by human activities.
  • Land Use Planning: All the landowners, public institutions, farmers, scientists, industry, and conservation groups found in these areas can work together to look for comprehensive land management.
  • Healthy Ecosystems: They help in maintaining healthy ecosystems by preventing soil erosion, protecting water springs, and maintaining the decomposers to maintain the soil quality.

Three zones of the Biosphere

Biosphere reserves have three unified zones that aim to fulfill three harmonizing and mutually reinforcing functions:

  1. The core area: It involves an entirely secured and protected ecosystem that contributes to the preservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species, and genetic variation.
  2. The buffer zone: It encompasses or adjoins the core areas. It is utilized for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can fortify scientific research, monitoring, training, and education.
  3. The transition area: It is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is permitted to promote economic and human development that is sustainable.

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