The cell structure consists of individual parts with specific functions essential to carry out life’s processes. These components include cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell organelles. Read on to explore more insights on cell structure and function.
Every cell in the body is enclosed by a cell membrane. The cell membrane separates the material outside the cell, extracellular, from the material inside the cell, intracellular. It maintains the integrity of a cell and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell. All materials within a cell must have access to the cell boundary for the needed exchange. It is a double layer of phospholipid molecules. Proteins in the cell membrane provide structural support, form channels for passage of materials, act as receptor sites, function as carrier molecules, and provide identification markers.
The cell wall is the most prominent part of the plant’s cell structure. It is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The cell wall is present exclusively in plant cells. It protects the plasma membrane and other cellular components. The cell wall is also the outermost layer of plant cells. It is a rigid and stiff structure surrounding the cell membrane. It provides shape and support to the cells and protects them from mechanical shocks and injuries.
The cytoplasm is a thick, clear, jelly-like substance present inside the cell membrane. Most of the chemical reactions within a cell take place in this cytoplasm. The cell organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, are suspended in this cytoplasm.
It contains the hereditary material of the cell, the DNA. It sends signals to the cells to grow, mature, divide, and die. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope that separates the DNA from the rest of the cell. The nucleus protects the DNA and is an integral component of a plant’s cell structure.