Cells are the building blocks of all living beings. They provide structure to the body and convert the nutrients taken from the food into energy. The word cell from Latin cella, Which means a small room. It is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. The study of the cell is called cellular biology, or cytology. It consists of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. All organisms are made up of cells. They may be made up of a single cell called unicellular, or many cells called multicellular.
Mycoplasmas are the smallest known cell.
They are of different shapes and sizes, pretty much like bricks of the buildings. Our body is made up of cells of different shapes and sizes. They are the lowest level of organization in every life form. From organism to organism, the count of cells may vary. Humans have the number of cells compared to that of bacteria. They comprise several cell organelles that perform specialized functions to carry out life processes. Every organelle has a specific structure.
Who Discovered Cell?
Cells were discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named them for their resemblance to cell inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery. Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that they are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, and that all comes from the pre-existing cell.
Characteristics of Cells
- They provide structure and support to the body of an organism.
- The cell interior is organized into different individual organelles surrounded by a separate membrane.
- The nucleus(major organelle) holds genetic information necessary for reproduction and cell growth.
- Every cell has one nucleus and membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm.
- Mitochondria, a double membrane-bound organelle is mainly responsible for the energy transactions vital for the survival of the cell.
- Lysosomes digest unwanted materials in the cell.
- Endoplasmic reticulum plays a significant role in the internal organization of the cell by synthesizing selective molecules and processing, directing, and sorting them to their appropriate locations.