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Cotton Cultivation

Cotton is the most important fiber crop produced in India because of the variety of its applications in all fields. It is a Kharif crop that requires approximately 8 months to cultivate. Cultivation has been practiced in India for ages.


In India, It is mainly cultivated in Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh. It is grown in black clayey soil with a warm climate. When its plant starts flowering, they give flowers of yellowish-white color which turns red after a few days. Processes involved in its cultivation.

  • Ginning: The plant from which cotton is picked contains seeds. The process of removing these seeds from cotton pods is known as ginning. Ginning can be done using hands or by machines.
  • Spinning: The process of turning fiber into yarn is known as spinning.
  • Weaving: The process of making fabric by arranging two sets of yarn together.
  • Knitting: Two yarns are used in knitting whereas in weaving more than two yarns can be used. This can be done by hand and also by machines. Example: Sweater is knitted from wool.

India used to dominate the global market due to its flourishing cotton industry but in the 18th century, it was taken over by the British who systematically destroyed the cotton industry in India to fuel the industrial revolution in Europe. Cotton has had a significant impact on Indian history and was an iconic statement for the Freedom movement as it figured even on the famous spinning wheel or Charkha of Gandhi Ji.

Types and Uses of Cotton

There are 4 types of commercially grown cotton they are:-

  1. Gossypium hirsutum
  2. Gossypium barbadense
  3. Gossypium arboreum
  4. Gossypium herbaceum

Uses of Cotton

  • It is used for every type of clothing from jackets to normal shirts.
  • At home, it finds its use in bedsheets and curtains.
  • Its seed oil is used in food and cosmetics.
  • It is also used in coffee filters.
  • Its seeds are fed to cattle and crushed to make oil, rubber, and plastics.