The nucleoid is the space within a prokaryotic cell where the genetic information, called the genophore, is found. Prokaryotes are divided into bacteria and archaea, which are both unicellular organisms that contain no membrane-bound organelles. It is mostly composed of multiple compacted copies of DNA in a continuous thread, with the addition of some RNA and proteins. The DNA in prokaryotes is double-stranded and generally takes a circular shape.
The nucleoid is essential for controlling the activity of the cell and reproduction. It is where transcription and replication of DNA take place. Within it, we can expect to find enzymes that serve as biological catalysts and help with replication, as well as other proteins that have other functional and structural roles, including assisting the formation of DNA, facilitating cell growth, and regulating the genetic material of the cell.
Difference Between Nucleus and Nucleoid
|A nucleus is a membrane-bound structure in which eukaryotes assemble their genetic materials.||It is a particular area in which prokaryotes assemble their genetic materials.|
|A nucleus is well organized and is large.||Nucleoid is poorly organized and is small.|
|A nucleus is engirdled by a double layer membrane known as a nuclear membrane which separates the nucleus from other organelles.||It lacks a protective membrane.|
|A nucleus comprises several chromosomes.||Nucleoid usually contains only one chromosome.|
|A nucleus is a spherically shaped organelle.||It is an irregularly shaped organelle.|
|Nucleoplasm and Nucleolus are present in the nucleus.||Nucleoplasm and Nucleolus are not found in a nucleoid.|
|It is composed of DNA, RNA, enzymes, dissolved ions, histones, and other subnuclear bodies.||It is composed of DNA, RNA, histones, and other proteins.|