Types of Cloning
There are three different types of cloning. Cloning is the production of living structures genetically identical to their parent structure. Genetic variations are absent. Cloning occurs naturally in asexually reproducing microbes and vegetatively multiplying plants. Asexually reproducing lower animals like Amoeba proteus also produces clones.
1. Organism Cloning: Organism cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. This form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place.
There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not organism cloning should be used. However, this type of cloning or asexual propagation has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.
2. Molecular Cloning: Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms. Molecular cloning takes advantage of the fact that the chemical structure of DNA is fundamentally the same in all living organisms.
3. Cellular Cloning: Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this method of cloning is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research.
Advantages of Cloning
- Cloning of stem cells will provide treatment for a variety of diseases.
- It allows the parents to choose the characters and traits they want in their children and also eliminates the unwanted ones.
- It provides a better understanding of genetic diseases.
- The endangered species of various animals can be preserved and no risk of any extinction.
- Provide organs for transplantation and also eliminates certain risks thus associated with the procedure of transplantation, so better life expectancy.
Disadvantages of Cloning
- Losing the diversity of genes.
- It might be unethical and cause an imbalance in society.
- Human cloning might pose the danger of human race extinction.