What is Disease?

Diseases are a condition that deteriorates the normal functioning of the cells, tissues, and organs.” They are usually caused by many factors rather than a single cause. When we have a disease, we eventually show some signs, such as headaches, cough, cold, weakness. These signs are referred to as “symptoms.” In almost all disorders, symptoms are shown immediately after having been struck by the disease. However, it varies depending upon the seriousness of the disease.

Classification of Diseases

Type Explanation Example
Anatomic Classification This type refers to the affected organ or tissue Heart disease
Topographical Classification Further classified into types such as vascular disease, chest disease, gastrointestinal disease, and abdominal diseases. These are then handled by specializations in medicine that follow these topographical classifications An ENT specialist (Ear-Nose-Throat)
A Gastroenterology specialist etc.
Physiological Classification This type includes diseases that affect a process or a function (such as metabolism, digestion, or respiration) Diabetes
Pathological Classification This type considers the nature of the disease. For instance, cancer is associated with uncontrolled cell growth, and there are variations or types in the disease. Neoplastic diseases (uncontrolled cell growth that is characteristic of cancer)
Inflammatory diseases (autoimmunity)
Epidemiological Classification This classification refers to the rate of occurrence, distribution, and control of the disease in a population. Epidemic disorders such as plague and Influenza pandemic of 1918–1919

Types of Diseases

They can be divided into 2 types

  1. Infectious Diseases: These are spread from one person to another are called communicable disorders. They are usually caused by microorganisms called pathogens (fungi, rickettsia, bacteria, viruses, protozoans, worms). When an infected person discharges bodily fluids, pathogens may exit the host and infected a new person. Ex: Corona, Cholera, chickenpox, and malaria, etc.
  2. Non-infectious Disorders: These are caused by pathogens, but other factors such as age, nutritional deficiency, gender of an individual, and lifestyle also influence the disease. Examples include hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. They do not spread to others and they restrain within a person who has contracted them. Asthma, cataracts, and heart disorders are other non-infectious disorders.

Diseases Types

List of Diseases

Disease Causative Agent
Plague Pasteurella pestis
Cholera Vibrio comma (Vibrio cholera)
Tetanus Clostridium tetani
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis
Whooping cough Bordetella pertussis
Human papillomavirus infection Human papillomavirus
AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Hepatitis Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E viruses
Chickenpox Varicella zoster virus

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