Female Reproduction System
Female reproduction system contains different types of organs are located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity which consists of the following major organs:
- Ovaries: The ovaries are small, paired organs located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity. These organs are responsible for the production of the egg cells (ova) and the secretion of hormones. The process by which the egg cell (ovum) is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle.
- Uterus: It is commonly known as the womb. It is a pear-shaped muscular bag-like organ with a strong muscular lining that holds the baby after fertilization. The uterus is referred as the site for the embryo development as it protects the fertilized ovum and holds it till the baby is mature enough for birth.
- Cervix: A cylinder ring-shaped tissue which is composed mainly of fibromuscular tissue. It is located at the lowermost portion of the uterus and is involved in connecting the uterus and the vagina.
- Vagina: The primary sexual organ which serves as both excretory organ as well as reproductive organ. It is a muscular and tubular part of the female genital tract that opens outside the body and the opening of the vagina is called the vulva, which also includes the clitoris, labia, and urethra. The vagina connects cervix to the external female body parts and it is the path for penis during coitus as well as a fetus during delivery.
Fertilization is the fusion of haploid gametes- sperm with egg to produce the diploid zygote. It is the crucial stage of reproduction as, without fertilization, sexual reproduction is futile. This process is of two types.
- Internal fertilization: In internal fertilization, the fusion of sperm and egg takes place within the female parent. In this process, the sperms are released into the body of the females during copulation and the resulting zygote develops internally within the mother and gets its nourishment from her. This type of fertilization is found in all humans, and in most of the animals like cats, dogs, cows, lions, etc.
- External fertilization: In external fertilization, the fusion of sperm and egg is carried outside the female parent. This type of fertilization is found in minority of organisms. In this process, the female parent lay her eggs and later, these eggs are fused by the male parent by ejecting his sperms over the eggs.