What are Fertilizers?

Fertilizers are chemical substances supplied to the crops to increase their productivity. They contain the essential nutrients required by the plants, including nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. They enhance the water retention capacity of the soil and also increase its fertility.

Types of Fertilizers

These are several types of fertilizers are mentioned below:
Inorganic Fertilizer: Inorganic Manure is chemical fertilizers that contain nutrient elements for the growth of crops made by chemical means. The inorganic fertilizers are of the following types:

  • Nitrogen Fertilizer: Nitrogen fertilizers contain nitrogen necessary for the development of crops. Nitrogen is the main constituent of chlorophyll that maintains a balance in the process of photosynthesis. It is also a part of amino acids in plants and constitutes protein. Nitrogen fertilizers improve the production and quality of agricultural products.
  • Phosphorus Fertilizer: The main nutrient in a phosphorus fertilizer is phosphorus. The efficiency of fertilizer depends upon effective phosphorus content, methods of fertilizing, properties of soil and crop strains. Phosphorus found in the protoplasm of the cell plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation. The phosphorus fertilizer is beneficial for the growth of the roots of the plants.

Organic Fertilizer: These are natural Manure obtained from plants and animals. It enriches the soil with carbonic compounds essential for plant growth. Organic fertilizers increase the organic matter content of the soil, promote the reproduction of microorganisms, and change the physical and chemical properties of the soil. It is considered to be one of the main nutrients for green food.
Organic fertilizer can be obtained from the following products:

  • Agricultural Waste
  • Livestock Manure
  • Industrial Waste
  • Municipal Sludge


Advantages of Fertilizers

  • They are used to providing additional nutrients to the plants.
  • They are water-soluble and can easily dissolve in the soil. Hence, they are easily absorbed by the plants.
  • Manures have accelerated the yielding of crops.
  • Organic manure improves the texture and fertility of the soil.
  • They are predictable and reliable.

Disadvantages of Fertilizer

Fertilizer has the following disadvantages:

  • Some are Manures are more expensive.
  • The ingredients in the fertilizers are toxic to the skin and respiratory system.
  • Excessive use of manures damages the plants and reduces soil fertility.
  • Leaching occurs and the fertilizers reach the rivers causing eutrophication.
  • Long-term use reduces microbial activity and disturbs the pH of the soil.

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