The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, which is then enclosed by a skull. consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head.
The study of the anatomy of the brain is neuroanatomy, while the study of its function is neuroscience. Numerous techniques are used to study the brain. Specimens from other animals, which may be examined microscopically, have traditionally provided much information. Medical imaging technologies such as functional neuroimaging, and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings are important in studying the brain. The medical history of people with a brain injury has provided insight into the function of each part of the brain. Brain research has evolved, with philosophical, experimental, and theoretical phases. An emerging phase may be to stimulate brain activity.
Parts of the Human Brain
Anatomically, the brain consists of the following parts:
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It consists of the cerebral cortex and other subcortical structures. It is composed of two cerebral hemispheres that are joined together by heavy, dense bands of fiber called the corpus callosum. The cerebrum is further divided into four sections or lobes:
- Frontal lobe: It is associated with parts of speech, planning, reasoning, problem-solving, and movements.
- Parietal lobe: Help in movements, the perception of stimuli, and orientation.
- Occipital lobe: It is related to visual processing.
- Temporal lobe: This region is related to the perception and recognition of memory, auditory stimuli, and speech.
The hypothalamus is a small and essential part of the brain, located precisely below the thalamus. It is considered the primary region of the brain, as it is involved in the following functions:
- Receives impulses
- Regulates body temperature
- Controls the mood and emotions
- Controls the sense of taste and smell
- Synthesizes the body’s essential hormones
- Coordinates the messages from the autonomous nervous system
- Controls appetite, peristalsis, the rate of heartbeat, and blood pressure
- Forms an axis with the pituitary gland which is the main link between the nervous and the endocrine systems.
The medulla oblongata is a small structure present in the lowest region of the brain. It mainly controls the body’s autonomic functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and digestion. It plays a primary role in connecting the spinal cord, pons, and cerebral cortex. Also, it helps us in maintaining our posture and controlling our reflexes.