Monocotyledonous Seeds and Dicotyledonous

Based on the number of Cotyledons, Seeds are divided into two types: They are Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous.

  1. Monocot Seeds: Monocotyledonous will have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat. Most of the time it is only a thin leaf because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not inside the seed leaf. Examples: Rice, Wheat, Maize, Bamboo, Palm, Banana, Ginger, Lilies, Iris are examples of monocot seeds.
  2. Dicotyledons (Dicots): Dicotyledons are flowering plants or angiosperms bearing seeds with two cotyledons or embryonic leaves. Examples: Bitter gourd seeds, Castor seeds, Mango seeds, Neem seeds, and Papaya seeds.

Monocotyledonous-seeds

Differences Between Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledons

Comparison

Monocotyledonous

Dicots

Definition These are flowering plants or angiosperms bearing seeds with a single cotyledon or embryonic leaf. These are flowering plants or angiosperms bearing seeds with two cotyledons or embryonic leaves.
Also called Monocotyledonous plants are also referred to as monocots. Dicotyledonous plants are also referred to as dicots.
Species Monocotyledon is a smaller group of flowering plants with 60,000 species of plants. Dicotyledon is a larger group of flowering plants with about 200,000 species of plants.
Root Monocots have an adventitious or fibrous root system. Most dicots have a tap root system. However, some dicots might have an adventitious root system.
Vascular bundles In monocots, the root has about 8-10 vascular bundles. In dicots, the root has about 2-4 vascular bundles.
Stem The stem in most monocots is herbaceous. But, some plants might have arboraceous stems. The stems in dicots are either herbaceous or arboraceous.
The Monocot stem is unbranched and fleshy. Dicot stem is branched and hard.
Within the stem of monocots, the vascular bundles are scattered in no particular pattern. Within the stem of dicots, the vascular bundles are arranged in concentric circles.
Most monocot stems lack a lateral meristem or cambium. A lateral meristem or cambium is present in the stems of dicot plants.
Cambium, if present, is not differentiated into cortex or stellar regions. The cambium is differentiated into the cortex and stellar regions.
Epidermal hairs are absent. Epidermal hairs are present.
Leaf The leaf in monocots is isobilateral in symmetry. The leaf in dicots is dorsoventrally flattened.
Monocots usually have long, narrow, and slender leaves. Dicots usually have broad leaves, but the shape and size of the leaves might vary according to the species.
Venation The leaves have a parallel venation system. The leaves have a reticulate venation system.
Flowers Monocot flowers are usually trimerous, meaning the number of parts of the flowers is either three or it’s multiple. Dicot flowers are usually tetramerous or pentamerous, meaning the number of the flower parts is either five or four or their multiple.
In some monocot plants, calyx and corolla are undifferentiated, and a perianth is present instead of them. The calyx and corolla in dicot plants are differentiated completely.
The flowers in monocots are usually wind-pollinated. The flowers in dicot plants are usually insect-pollinated.
Germination The seed germination in the monocot embryo is hypogeal. The seed germination in the dicot embryo is either hypogeal or epigeal.
Embryo The embryo in monocots contains only one cotyledon or seed leaves. The embryo in dicots contains two cotyledons or seed leaves.
Embryo produces a single leaf that grows as a long and narrow structure during germination. Embryo produces two seeds that develop into different shapes than their true leaf.
Endosperm The endosperm is always present and is usually large. The endosperm might or might not be present and is usually small.
Fruit Trilocular fruit is found in monocotyledons. Pentalocular fruit is found in dicotyledons.

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