What is Morphology?

Morphology is a branch of science that deals with the study of the external structure of plants. The flowering plant consists of a shoot system, root system, and an axis. the study of the size, shape, and structure of animals, plants, and microorganisms and of the relationships of their constituent parts. The term refers to the general aspects of biological form and arrangement of the parts of a plant or an animal. The term anatomy also refers to the study of biological structure but usually suggests a study of the details of either gross or microscopic structure. In practice, however, the two terms are used almost synonymously.
Morphologists were originally concerned with the bones, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves comprised by the bodies of animals and the roots, stems, leaves, and flower parts comprised by the bodies of higher plants. The development of the light microscope made possible the examination of some structural details of individual tissues and single cells; the development of the electron microscope and of methods for preparing ultrathin sections of tissues created an entirely new aspect of morphology, that involving the detailed structure of cells. Electron microscopy has gradually revealed the amazing complexity of the many structures of the cells of plants and animals. Other physical techniques have permitted biologists to investigate the morphology of complex molecules such as hemoglobin, the gas-carrying protein of blood, DNA, of which most genes are composed. Thus, morphology encompasses the study of biological structures over a tremendous range of sizes, from the macroscopic to the molecular.
Root System
The flowering plants consist of a lengthy cylindrical axis that is differentiated in an underground root system. The root is the non-green descending underground part that lacks internodes, nodes, buds, and leaves. The elongation in Dicotyledon plants leads to the formation of the primary root. The primary root grows in the soil and bears root lateral roots called secondary roots, tertiary roots, etc.

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