A flower is the reproductive part of a plant. They are not only involved in reproduction but are also a source of food for other living organisms. They are a rich source of nectar. Most flowers have four main parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The stamens are the male part whereas the carpels are the female part of the flowers. Most flowers are hermaphrodites where they contain both male and female parts. Others may contain one of the two parts and may be male or female.
Parts of Flower
The different parts of a flower are included below:
Vegetative Parts of a Flower
The vegetative part of a flower consists of the following:
- Petals: This is a bright-colored part that attracts bees, insects, and birds. The Colour of petals varies from plant to plant; some are bright while some are pale-colored. Thus, petals help us to differentiate one flower from another.
- Sepals: It is the green-colored part beneath the petals to protect rising buds. Some flowers have fused petals-sepals while a few have separated petals-sepals.
Reproductive Parts of a Flower
Reproductive parts of the flowers are the part that performs sexual reproduction.
- Stamen: It is also called Androecium. It contains anther and filament. The filament is the long slender stalk that holds the anther. The anther is the part of the flower that contains anther sacs in its lobes called pollen grains. The pollen grains are the male gametes that interact with the female gamete to form the endosperm and the embryo.
- Carpels: It is also called Gynoecium. If it contains a single pistil, it is called monocarpellary. If it includes many pistils, it is termed multicarpellary. The stigma, style, and ovary are the parts of the carpel. The stigma is the receptive surface that attaches the pollen; the style is the connection between the stigma and the ovary; the ovary is the central part of the plant where the process of double fertilization takes place.
Functions Of Flower
- The most important function of flowers is reproduction. They help in the union of male and female gametes.
- The flowers can produce diaspores without fertilization.
- After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit containing a seed.
- They provide nectar to certain birds and insects, which in turn help in the transfer of pollen from one flower to the other.
- They may promote selfing, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from the same flower, or cross-fertilization, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from different flowers.