Rainwater harvesting is a process used to conserve Rainwater by collecting, storing, conveying, and purifying Rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. for later use. It is one of the best methods practiced and followed to support the conservation of water. Today, scarcity of good quality water has become a significant cause of concern. However, Rainwater, which is pure and of good quality, can be used for irrigation, washing, cleaning, bathing, cooking, and also for other livestock requirements.
Harvest the Rainwater
It consists of the following components:
- Catchment: Used to collect and store the captured Rainwater.
- Conveyance system: It is used to transport the harvested water from the catchment to the recharge zone.
- Flush: It is used to flush out the first spell of rain.
- Filter: Used for filtering the collected Rainwater and remove pollutants.
- Tanks and the recharge structures: Used to store the filtered water which is ready to use.
The process involves the collection and storage of rainwater with the help of artificially designed systems that run off naturally or man-made catchment areas like- the rooftop, compounds, rock surface, hill slopes, artificially repaired impervious or semi-pervious land surface.
Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting
- Less cost.
- Decreases the water demand.
- Reduces the need for imported water.
- Promotes both water and energy conservation.
- Improves the quality and quantity of groundwater.
- Does not require a filtration system for landscape irrigation.
- This technology is relatively simple, easy to install and operate.
- It reduces soil erosion, stormwater runoff, flooding, and pollution of surface water with fertilizers, pesticides, metals, and other sediments.
- It is an excellent source of water for landscape irrigation with no chemicals and dissolved salts and free from all minerals.
Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting
- Required regular maintenance.
- Requires technical skills for installation.
- Limited and no rainfall can limit the supply of Rainwater.
- If not installed correctly, it may attract mosquitoes and other waterborne diseases.
- One of the significant drawbacks of the rainwater harvesting system is storage limits.