Mitosis is the process of cell division in which one cell divides to produce two new cells that are genetically identical to itself. In the context of the cell cycle, It is the part of the division process in which the DNA of the cell’s nucleus is split into two equal sets of chromosomes.
It is essential for the growth of the cells and the replacement of worn-out cells. Abnormalities during mitosis may alter the DNA, resulting in genetic disorders.
Features of Mitosis
- In each cycle of cell division, two daughter cells are formed from the parent cell.
- The cell is also known as equational cell division because the chromosome number in the parent cell and daughter cell is the same.
- In plants, mitosis leads to the growth of vegetative parts of the plant like the root tip, stem tip, etc.
- Segregation and combination do not occur in this process.
- The entire mitosis process is made up of only one equational or homotypic division.
- There is no recombination or segregation during the mitosis stage.
- It helps an organism grow from a baby to an adult.
- They also perform the functions of growth and repair.
Significance of Mitosis
- It is responsible for the development of the zygote into an adult.
- Equal distribution of chromosomes to each daughter cell.
- It is responsible for the growth and development of an individual.
- It maintains the constant number of chromosomes in all body cells of an organism.
- They are required for asexual reproduction, and vegetative propagation in plants and is also responsible for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues.
- It helps in maintaining the purity of the genome as no recombination or crossing-over takes place.
- It is responsible for the repair and regeneration of old and damaged cells in animals e.g. gut epithelium, blood cells, etc.