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What is Soil Erosion?

Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, it is a form of soil degradation. It occurs in almost all types of lands. Flowing water, rainwater, and wind are the prime agents which cause a significant amount of soil loss each year. Too much soil erosion causes serious loss of topsoil and also reduces crop production potential, lower surface water quality, and damaged drainage networks.

Causes of Soil Erosion

Types of Soil Erosion

  1. Rain Drop or Splash Erosion: The erosion due to the impact of falling raindrops on soil surface leading to the destruction of the crumb structure is known as the raindrop or splash erosion.
  2. Sheet Erosion: It is the uniform removal of soil in thin layers from the land surface caused by the wind. Land areas with loose, shallow topsoil overlie compact soil are most prone to sheet erosion.
  3. Rill Erosion: Rill erosion is a form of water erosion in which the erosion takes place through numerous narrow and more or not so straight channels called streamlets, or head cuts. Rill is the most common form of erosion, which you can also observe during heavy rain.
  4. Gully Erosion: Gully erosion occurs due to the runoff of surface water causing the removal of soil with drainage lines. Gullies when started once, will move by headward erosion or even by slumping of side walls unless and until proper steps will be taken to stabilize the disturbance.
  5. Stream Bank Erosion: Bank erosion is nothing but washing up away from the banks of a stream or a river. This type of erosion is also termed Stream Bank Erosion

Effects of Soil Erosion

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