What is Ammonia?

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. It is widely used as a fertilizer. NH3 is also used in the manufacturing of explosives such as nitrocellulose and TNT. Also, it is used in the production of soda ash and in the Ostwald process to get nitric acid.

NH3 Uses

  • Used as fertilizers as it increases the yield of crops
  • NH3 is mixed with water to clean stainless steel and glass
  • Used in food products as an antimicrobial agent
  • It is used in the fermentation industry
  • Used as a refrigerant
  • It is used as a pH adjuster in the fermentation process
  • Used to neutralize pollutant like nitrogen oxides emitted from diesel engines
  • It is used as a fuel for rocket engines
  • Used in textile industries
  • NH3 used in the manufacture of synthetic fiber like rayon and nylon

Ammonia is a chemical found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonia guano. The kidneys secrete ammonia to neutralize excess acid. Ammonium salts are found distributed through fertile soil and in seawater.
Properties of Ammonia

NH3 Ammonia
Molecular Weight 17.031 g/mol
Density 0.73 kg/m³
Boiling Point -33.34 °C
Melting Point −77.73 °C
  • Ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristically pungent smell.
  • It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air.
  • It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules; the liquid boils at −33.3 °C (−27.94 °F),
  • Freezes to white crystals at −77.7 °C (−107.86 °F).
  • The crystal symmetry is cubic, Pearson symbol cP16, space group P213 No.198, the lattice constant 0.5125 nm.
  • Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf.

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