P block elements are in which the last electron enters any of the three p-orbitals of their respective shells. Since a p-subshell has three degenerate p-orbitals each of which can accommodate two electrons therefore in all there are six groups of p-block elements.
P block elements are shiny and usually a good conductor of electricity and heat as they tend to lose an electron. You will find some amazing properties of elements in a P-block element like gallium. It’s a metal that can melt in the palm of your hand. Silicon is also one of the most important metalloids of the p-block group as it is an important component of glass. P block elements are nothing but the element in which the last electron enters the outermost p-subshell. P block starts from the 13th group and goes till the 18th group in the periodic table.
You must have seen that coal is used in villages to cook food. It is nothing but a P-block element i.e. carbon. Diamonds are used for making beautiful ornaments are also made up of carbon. Aluminum foil made up of aluminum is also made up of the p block element.
Characteristics of p-Block Elements
- The general electronic configuration of p-block elements is ns2np1-6(except He). Whereas the inner core electronic configuration may differ. Just because of this difference in the inner core, there are changes in both the physical and chemical properties of the elements.
- The oxidation state of elements in p – block is maximum when it is equal to a total number of valence electrons i.e. the sum of S and P electrons. One of the most interesting facts about the p-block elements is that it contains both non-metals and metalloids.
The first member of the p block elements differ from other elements in two major respects:
- First are the size and every property which depends upon the size.
- The second difference applies only to the p-block element which arises from the effects of d-orbitals in the valence shell of heavier elements.