Characteristics of Living things
All living things take birth, grow, reproduce, and ultimately die. This is the life cycle of every living thing on Earth.
- Cellular organization: They must possess a cellular organization. They can be unicellular or multicellular but without the presence of cells, They cannot exist. The generation of energy for instance mostly takes place by cellular respiration. It is the process of absorbing nutrients from food and then turning them into energy.
- Respiration: Respiration is the second basic process that ensures continuity of life. Respiration is the process of exchanging gases. The goal of respiration is to generate energy. This process also leaves living organisms with waste products that should be eliminated from the body.
- Locomotion: They can move. Animals can move on their own. Example- Leopards, cats, dogs can run. In the case of plants, they move towards the sun, as sunlight is essential for growth.
- Response to stimulus: All they are responsive to stimuli from their surrounding. They show sensitivity to touch and respond according to their surroundings.
- Excretion: The process of elimination of waste generated in the body is called excretion. Excretion is also a characteristic only possessed by living things.
- Reproduction: They can produce offspring, which carry forward their generation. They have a fragment of genetic material from the parent and also show genetic variation due to the mixing of the genes.
Characteristics of Non-Living things
- They do not have cells, which are the basic unit of life.
- Due to the absence of cells, tissues, organs, no metabolic activities are going inside them. No metabolic activity means, no production of energy.
- They do not show locomotion. They cannot move on their own. An external force has to be applied to move from one place to another.
- They do not grow. They do not produce offspring. So, there is no process of reproduction involved in their life cycle.
- These are not dead. They cannot vanish on their own. They do not age. An external force can only destroy them.
Examples: Mountain, car, ship, water, sky, etc.
Difference Between Living and Non-Living things
|Living Things||Non-Living Things|
|They possess life.||They do not possess life.|
The basic unit of life is cells
|They do not have cells.|
|Living things carry out metabolic activities inside their bodies to generate energy.||They cannot generate energy and have no metabolic activities going inside their bodies.|
|Living things respire and respiration ensures continuity of life.||These are not need to respire.|
|They show locomotion or movement on their own.||They cannot move on their own unless moved by an external force.|
|Living things show growth from within.||They do not grow on their own.|
|Living things can reproduce and produce offspring of their own.||They cannot reproduce and neither can they produce their offspring.|
|They could die due to age, disease or cell death, organ failure, etc.||These never cease to exist unless they are destroyed by an external force.|
|They eliminate waste from their body through the process of excretion.||These are not able to eat and cant excrete.|