Elements of Environment

The word Environment is derived from the old French word ‘environer’ which means to ‘surround, enclose, and encircle’. Environment refers to an aggregate of conditions or surroundings in which living beings such as humans, animals, and plants live or survive and non-living things exist.

Elements of Environment

1. Air: Air is very important component of environment. No living organisms can’t live without air. Every organisms requires Oxygen for respiration. Carbon dioxide is used by green plants to make food by the process of photosynthesis.

The Composition of various Gases in Air

  • Nitrogen                     78%
  • Oxygen                          21%
  • Carbon dioxide          03%
  • Neon                           0018%
  • Helium                       0005%.

As the population of the world is increasing the air pollution day by day due to the human activities. Various gases released from the industries like sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide etc. Causes air pollution

2. Soil: The top most layer of land is soil, which is of various types. The chemical composition of the soil gives nutrition to plants and trees to increase the productivity. Sandy Soil, rocky and clay will affect the environment and climate vegetation.

Clay has lot of moisture in it and keeps the water level high in which disease producing bacteria and virus grow. Sandy soil contains sand particles, which can damage the eyes and spread diseases like Intestinal worms and other disease-producing microorganisms.

Spores have hard shell which can resist adverse conditions and when it find favorable conditions it multiplies, grows and spreads diseases like tetanus, Anthrax etc.

4. Water: Human being procured water from river, ponds, well, spring, lakes and seas. The drying-up and replenishment of water from all these sources is a natural process. Underground water in wells, tube well etc. replenish water from the rainwater seepage.

Water is utilized for a variety of functions by various bodies, such as, household water consumption, industrial institutions, and local bodies like municipalities, fire extinguishers, different improvement trusts, in hotels, parks, hospitals etc.