Food Production and Food Processing

Food production has many sections and it starts with basic things like cleaning, packing, segregating, sorting, preparing, adding ingredients in correct proportions, presenting, etc. There are large numbers of plants and animals, which are used for food. These include grains, pulses, spices, honey, nuts, cereals, milk, vegetables, fruits, egg, meat, chicken, etc. The existence of our life is completely dependent on plants and animals. All plants and animals species provide 90% of global energy.

Types of Food Production

Food production is classified into different types including, cultivation, selection, crop management, harvesting, crop production, preserving, baking, pasteurizing, pudding, carving, butchering, fermenting, pickling, drink, and candy making, restaurants, etc.

Methods of Food Production

  • Chopping or slicing of vegetables.
  • Curing food.
  • Grinding and marinating.
  • Emulsification.
  • Food fermentation.
  • Fermenting beer at brewing industries.
  • Boiling, broiling, frying, grilling, steaming, and mixing.
  • Pasteurization.
  • Fruit juice processing.
  • Removing the outer layers either by peeling and skinning.
  • Gasification of soft drinks.
  • Preserving and packaging of food products by vacuum packs.

What is Food Processing?
Food Processing is the process of transforming food items into a form that can be used. It can cover the processing of raw materials into food via different physical and chemical processes. Various activities covered in this process are mincing, cooking, canning, liquefaction, pickling, macerating, and emulsification.
It takes clean, harvested crops, or butchered and slaughtered animal products to produce attractive, marketable, and in several cases, life-long food products. However, food processing can also lower the nutritional value of the food and might include additives that might adversely affect health.

Methods of Food Processing

The following methods are applied for the proper processing of food:

  • Peeling off the outer layers of the raw materials.
  • Chopping or slicing
  • Mincing
  • Liquefaction
  • Fermentation
  • Emulsification
  • Cooking
  • Mixing
  • Proofing
  • Spray drying
  • Pasteurization
  • Packaging

Other Methods of Food Processing
Food preservation is a process involved in food processing employed to prevent the growth of fungi, bacteria, and many other microorganisms. It involves the process of slowing down the oxidation of fats that would lead to rancidity. Some preservation methods are stated below:

  • Drying: This process would result in the evaporation of moisture content from food, thus preventing microorganisms from invading the food. Moisture from food could also be removed by using hot air.
  • Cooling: It is a technique of preserving food by slowing down the growth of microorganisms and the action of an enzyme that is responsible for the rotting of food.
  • Freezing: It is one of the regular processes that has been under use domestically and commercially to preserve a wide range of foods. Rapid freezing might harm the texture of food.
  • Heating: The majority of microorganisms and spores could be destroyed by applying sufficient heat to food items. One of the known examples includes boiling milk.
  • Pickling: It is a process of preserving food in an edible and antimicrobial liquid. It could be categorized into two types, namely fermentation and thermal pickling.

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