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What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a condition when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the needs of the body. In other words, we can say that the thyroid gland becomes underactive. The opposite of hypothyroidism is hyperthyroidism- a situation where the thyroid gland is overactive.

The common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. “Thyroiditis” is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder. With Hashimoto’s, your body produces antibodies that attack and destroy the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis may also be caused by a viral infection.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

The symptoms of hypothyroidism can vary from person to person and may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • A puffy face
  • Trouble tolerating cold
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Dry, thinning hair
  • Decreased sweating
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Fertility problems in women
  • Depression
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Goiter is an enlarged thyroid that may cause your neck to look swollen. Sometimes it can cause trouble with breathing or swallowing.

Hypothyroidism in Children and Teens

In general, children and teens who develop hypothyroidism have the same signs and symptoms as adults do, but they may also experience:

  • Poor growth, resulting in short stature
  • Delayed development of permanent teeth
  • Delayed puberty
  • Poor mental development

Treatment for Hypothyroidism
There is no permanent cure for this condition. However, medications and lifelong therapies work. Specific drugs work and are useful in controlling the imbalance by replacing the levels of T4 and T3 hormones.  Some thyroid supplements are available to treat this underproduction.  The doctors typically check the age, causes, and hormone levels before they can prescribe any medications
Along with the treatment, it is essential to follow some precautions and adopt lifestyle changes to address the issue. Some changes include having a balanced diet, regular exercise, walking, and weight loss programs. Plus, quitting smoking habits and cutting down on consumption of alcohol, and drinking lots of water.

Hypothyroidism vs Hyperthyroidism