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Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is an abnormal form of cancer. In most cases, women appear to be more vulnerable to this disease than men and it is more common in people among the higher age groups. In most cases, It causes a lump in the gland known as the thyroid nodule. Most of these nodules are non-malignant (or) noncancerous but about 10% of them are malignant.

Types of Thyroid Cancer

It is broadly divided into 3 groups namely:

  1. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: This type of cancer cell grows slowly. However, when they do grow, they can spread to lymph nodes. Papillary cancer is often treated successfully and has a low rate of mortality.
  2. Medullary Thyroid: It is a form of cancer that originates from the C cells, which are present within the thyroid gland. The C cells are mainly responsible for the secretion of the calcitonin hormone. It is very hard to locate as it spread to the lymph, the liver, or the lungs. It is sub-categorized into sporadic medullary and familial medullary thyroid cancer.
  3. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: It is virtually undetectable as these cancer cells are completely different from normal thyroid cells when examined under the microscope. This cancer spreads quickly to other organs which are extremely difficult to diagnose and treat.

There are other forms of thyroid disease such as thyroid sarcoma, thyroid lymphoma, and other tumors which are extremely rare.

Symptoms

  1. Swelling in the neck.
  2. Difficulty in swallowing.
  3. Pain in the neck and the ears.
  4. Abnormal voice change.
  5. A frequent cough without the cold.
  6. The presence of a lump or nodule on the thyroid gland.

This syndrome would be difficult to diagnose sometimes as it shows no signs or symptoms. Having periodic checkups is recommended for preventing such outcomes.

Causes

There are a few factors, which might be the reason or cause of this cancer. These factors include:

  • Changes in the DNA of cells.
  • Exposed to more radiation.
  • Exposure of a neck for X-rays and CT scans.
  • Low iodine diet.
  • Intake of tobacco or smoking with thyroid disorders.