Components of a computer system are the primary elements that make the functioning of an electronic device smooth and faster. There are five basic components which include:
- Input Unit: In computing, an input device is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance. Ex: of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, cameras, joysticks, and microphones.
- Output Unit: An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment that converts information into human-readable form. It can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, and video. Some of the output devices are Visual Display Units (VDU) i.e. a Monitor, Printer, Graphics Output devices, Plotters, Speakers, etc.
- Memory Unit: It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing. It stores intermediate results of processing. It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
- Control Unit: The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic logic unit, and input and output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor. It controls all activities of computer
- Arithmetical and Logical Unit: The ALU is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALUs. In addition to ALUs, modern CPUs contain a control unit (CU).
- Central Processing Unit (CPU): The Central Processing Unit is the core of any computer device. It comprises three major components of the computer which have been discussed above. All these units are elements of the CPU and together help inefficient working and processing of data. It is also known as the Brain of the Computer.