Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.
IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.
IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, which was complemented by a connection-oriented service that became the basis for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.
Function of Protocol
The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing host interfaces, encapsulating data into datagrams and routing datagrams from a source host interface to a destination host interface across one or more IP networks. For these purposes, the Internet Protocol defines the format of packets and provides an addressing system.
Each datagram has two components: a header and a payload. The IP header includes source IP address, destination IP address, and other metadata needed to route and deliver the datagram. The payload is the data that is transported. This method of nesting the data payload in a packet with a header is called encapsulation.
IP addressing entails the assignment of IP addresses and associated parameters to host interfaces. The address space is divided into subnetworks, involving the designation of network prefixes. IP routing is performed by all hosts, as well as routers, whose main function is to transport packets across network boundaries. Routers communicate with one another via specially designed routing protocols, either interior gateway protocols or exterior gateway protocols, as needed for the topology of the network.
Types of Protocols
A protocol technologies is required for communication between computers to computer. To connect different types of computers from a variety of computer vendors, protocols must be first standardized.
- TCP: Transmission control protocol is used for communication over a network. In TCP data is broken down into small packets and then sent to the destination. However, IP is making sure packets are transmitted to the right address.
- Internet Protocol (IP): It is also working with TCP. It is an addressing Protocol. IP addresses packets route them and show different nodes and network Unless it reaches its right destination. The IP protocol is developed in 1970.
- FTP: File transfer protocol is basically used for transferring files to different networks. There may be a mass of files such as text files, multimedia files, etc. This way of file transfer is quicker than other methods.
- SMTP: Simple mail transfer protocol manages the transmission and outgoing mail over the internet.
- HTTP: HTTP is based on client and server model. HTTP is used for making a connection between the web client and web server. HTTP shows information in web pages.
- Ethernet: Ethernet is a most important for LAN communication. Ethernet transmits the data in digital packets. If any computer wants to use this protocol they should contain Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC). The card is implemented with unique address code fixed in the microchip.
- Telnet: Telnet is mainly used for the remote login process. The computer which is requesting for a connection that is a local computer and which is accepting the connection that is a remote computer. If you give a command in a local computer that command is executed in the remote computer. Telnet is also based on client and server model.
- Gopher: Gopher is an application layer protocol, which is used for searching and retrieving documents from remote sites. This is possible to start an online connection with other computers through gopher.