Computer languages useful to develop computer programs. They are useful to control and develop many computer applications and other apps.
Computer languages are classified into three types They are namely:
- Machine Level language.
- Assembly Level Language.
- High-Level Language.
1. Machine Level Language: A computer can understand only the language of Digital Electronics. Digital Electronics deals with the presence and absence of voltages. Within the computer, two logics can play their role. These logics are:
- Positive Logic: Here presence of voltage will be denoted by 1 and the absence of voltage will be denoted by 0.
- Negative Logic: It presence of voltage will be denoted by 0 and the absence of voltage will be denoted by 1.
To make the computer understand, a program can be written using only 0s and 1s. The data can also be specified and represented using only 0s and 1s. Such a program is called the Machine Language program. Machine language was the first in the evolution of computer programming languages. The computer directly understands a program written in the machine language. So as a result, the machine language program does not require any translator to convert from one form to another. In fact, even to this day, basically, computers understand only the 0s and 1s.
2. Assembly Level Language: After machine-level language, the next level of development in the evolution of computer languages was the Assembly Language. The machine-level language uses only binary language. But on the other hand, assembly language uses mnemonics or symbolic instructions in place of a sequence of 0s and 1s. For example, we can consider that to add register A and B in a particular computer, assembly language uses the mnemonic ‘ADD B’ in place of 10001111. In assembly language, we use symbolic names to denote addresses and data. Several examples are dealt with in the successive chapters. Thus writing a program in assembly language has advantages overwriting the same in a machine language.
3. High-Level Language: A high-level language is a next development in the evolution of computer languages. Examples of some high-level languages are given below:
- PROLOG (for “PROgramming LOGic”);
- FORTRAN (for ‘FORrmula TRANslation’);
- Pascal (named after the French scientist Blaise Pascal).
High-level languages are like English-like language, with fewer words also known as keywords, and fewer ambiguities. Each high-level language will have its own syntax and keywords. The meaning of the word syntax is grammar.