Types of Benchmarks
They are several types of Benchmarks.
- Great trigonometric survey (GST) Benchmark: The establishment of a great trigonometric survey (GST) benchmark is performed by the survey of India department. This benchmark is located for about every hundred kilometers (100 km) all over the country. The G.T.S benchmarks are fixed with respect to the main sea level as datum located at Bombay port. An electronic total station (ETS) is used for transferring the GTS benchmarks to the survey area.
- Permanent benchmark: The departments of government such as the Public Work Department (PWD0, irrigation, railway, etc., fixed some permanent marks on some permanent points with respect to the GTS benchmarks. Such marks are known as permanent benchmarks.
- Arbitrary benchmark: Arbitrary benchmarks are fixed as the reference points for the leveling small survey operations. The elevations of these benchmarks are randomly assumed and are not fixed with reference to any datum. These benchmarks are generally used for the leveling of small, rough, and undulated ground surfaces.
- Temporary benchmark: Temporary benchmark is established at permanent objects like the root of a tree, kilometer stones, parapet walls, etc. they are marked at the completion of days works and serves as the reference points when the work is resumed on the next day.
- Product Benchmarking: It is an age-old practice of product-oriented reverse engineering. Every organization buys its rival’s products and tears down to find out how the features and performances etc., compare with its products. This could be the starting point for improvement.
- Competitive Benchmarking: Corporate benchmarking has moved beyond product-oriented comparisons to include comparisons of the process with those of competitors. In this type, the process studies may include marketing, finance, HR, R&D, etc.
- Process Benchmarking: This is the activity of measuring discrete performance and functionality against an organization through performance in excellent analogous business processes.
- Internal Benchmarking: It is an application of process benchmarking, within an organization by comparing the performance of similar business units or business processes.